Central Mongolia

Geographically, mountains stretch across Central Mongolia. More specifically parts of Khangai and Khentii mountain chains formed either volcanically or tectonically.

The Khangai mountain range stretches from northwest to southeast for about 800km (500miles), almost parallel to the Altai Mountain range of the western parts of Mongolia. The highest peak of this range is at 4100m (12 810 ft), the Otgon Tenger peak. From this range, geologists found metamorphic rocks which belong to the middle Cambrian period – about 500 million years ago.

The majority of the local drainage flows into Selenge River, a tributary to Orkhon River. Orkhon river itself drains into Lake Baikal. However, rivers of the southern slopes end in salt lakes or disappear in the Gobi Dessert.

Extending northeast from near Ulaanbaatar, the capital city, the Khentii Mountain Range overtakes the area of north-central Mongolia. The range is rich with larch, pine tree forests and swamps.  The mountains are more than 2,700 metres (9,000 feet) in elevation.

Central Mongolia’s drainage pattern consists predominantly of three river systems: The Onon, Kherlen and Tuul Rivers.

The majority of the smaller rivers flow into River Onon. This river is one of the important rivers that feed the mighty Amur River that drains into the Pacific Ocean. While the third-longest river in Mongolia, Kherlen, flows from Khentii Mountains across eastern Mongolia and into Dalai Nuur or Hulun Nuur Lake.

The third major river Tuul flows in another direction, into the Orkhon River that drains into Lake Baikal.

The waters are rich with various fishes, such as Taimen, Sharp-Snouted Lenok, Brown Trout, Amur Pike, and Grayling.

The climate in central Mongolia is arid with a semi-dry climate. The area has cold winters and warm summers, with the most precipitation during summer. Winter nights can drop to −40 °C/−40.0 °F Summer days can reach +30°C/86 °F in most years.

The mountainous region here in central Mongolia offers beautiful wildlife such as wild mountain sheep Argali, ibex, gazelle, wild horse, grey wolves, fox etc.

Locals tend to have more sheep and goat.

Khalkh, Buriad and other ethnic groups of people live in this region. Population by provinces:

Tuv: 93 332

Bulgan: 61 955

Khentii: 78 172

Arkhangai: 95 067

Uvurkhangai: 116 785

Bayankhongor: 89 329

The total population is: 534 640

All Central Mongolia destinations

Ulaanbaatar winter Snowing scenery
gorkhi-terelj national park
Terelj National Park
Elsen Tasarkhai Little Gobi
Elsen Tasarkhai
short tour mongolia to khustai national park - takhi horses with winter scenery
Hustai National Park
Gun Galuut rivers of Central Mongolia
Gun Galuut National Reserve
Gandan Main Monastery Janraisig deity by Sandra Henri
Gandan Monastery
Karakorum Erdene zuu monastery from the inside
Erdene Zuu Monastery
Genghis khan statue complex at Tsonjin Boldog
Genghis khan statue
Aryapal Meditation Monastery Mongolia
Aryapal Meditation Monastery
white tara carving Aglag Monastery complex Mongolia
Aglag Buteel Monastery Complex
Monument of Mongol state maps at Kharkhorin

All Central Mongolia Tours

Wrestler customary circling of flag at Naadam Festival
Cultural Tour Mongolia

Nadaam Festival Mongolia – Naadam Festival Tour 2024

Visit the Golden Gobi, the ancient capital of Mongols Kharkhorin, and discover nomadic culture first-hand by visiting the Naadam Festival Tour Mongolia 2022.
Female horse archer
Adventure Tour Mongolia

Horse Archery Mongolia 2024 Tour

Learn horse riding, Mongolian archery from the foundation level and combine these practices into traditional Mongolian horse archery on this adventure tour.
Genghis khan statue complex at Tsonjin Boldog
Short Tour Mongolia

Genghis Khan Statue Tour

Visit the dramatic Genghis khan statue located a 1.5hour drive east of Ulaanbaatar on this one-day tour. Explore the Aryapal Meditation Monastery
Gandan Monastery Main Monastery exterior - Sandra Henri
Short Tour Mongolia

Ulaanbaatar City Tour

This full-day Ulaanbaatar city tour is filled with the best destinations of the capital. Its purpose is to give you a deeper understanding of Mongolia’s past, present, and future.