Geographically, mountains stretch across Central Mongolia. More specifically parts of Khangai and Khentii mountain chains formed either volcanically or tectonically.
The Khangai mountain range stretches from northwest to southeast for about 800km (500miles), almost parallel to the Altai Mountain range of the western parts of Mongolia. The highest peak of this range is at 4100m (12 810 ft), the Otgon Tenger peak. From this range, geologists found metamorphic rocks which belong to the middle Cambrian period – about 500 million years ago.
The majority of the local drainage flows into Selenge River, a tributary to Orkhon River. Orkhon river itself drains into Lake Baikal. However, rivers of the southern slopes end in salt lakes or disappear in the Gobi Dessert.
Extending northeast from near Ulaanbaatar, the capital city, the Khentii Mountain Range overtakes the area of north-central Mongolia. The range is rich with larch, pine tree forests and swamps. The mountains are more than 2,700 metres (9,000 feet) in elevation.
Central Mongolia’s drainage pattern consists predominantly of three river systems: The Onon, Kherlen and Tuul Rivers.
The majority of the smaller rivers flow into River Onon. This river is one of the important rivers that feed the mighty Amur River that drains into the Pacific Ocean. While the third-longest river in Mongolia, Kherlen, flows from Khentii Mountains across eastern Mongolia and into Dalai Nuur or Hulun Nuur Lake.
The third major river Tuul flows in another direction, into the Orkhon River that drains into Lake Baikal.
The waters are rich with various fishes, such as Taimen, Sharp-Snouted Lenok, Brown Trout, Amur Pike, and Grayling.
The climate in central Mongolia is arid with a semi-dry climate. The area has cold winters and warm summers, with the most precipitation during summer. Winter nights can drop to −40 °C/−40.0 °F Summer days can reach +30°C/86 °F in most years.
The mountainous region here in central Mongolia offers beautiful wildlife such as wild mountain sheep Argali, ibex, gazelle, wild horse, grey wolves, fox etc.
Locals tend to have more sheep and goat.
Khalkh, Buriad and other ethnic groups of people live in this region. Population by provinces:
Tuv: 93 332
Bulgan: 61 955
Khentii: 78 172
Arkhangai: 95 067
Uvurkhangai: 116 785
Bayankhongor: 89 329
The total population is: 534 640